24 christian counseling today SPECIAL EDITION memory consolidation of traumatic events (Burbiel, 2015) Psychotherapies. Cognitive Therapy (CT) and Cognitive Be- havioral Therapy (CBT), Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), and Pro- longed Exposure Therapy (PE) have been shown to be effective in treating PTSD. It is likely that most of the readers of this article understand the basic premise of CT and CBT, so that will not be discussed further. Read- ers may not be as familiar with CPT, which is a form of therapy developed in the last decade. It is a short-term therapy aimed at helping clients de- velop a new understanding of trau- matic events they have experienced. It places more emphasis on processing the traumatic event itself and the as- sociated emotions connected to the trauma than traditional CBT (Resn- ick, Monson, & Chard, 2014). (A free treatment manual is available online at: https://www.div12.org/wp-con- tent/uploads/2015/07/CPT-Materials- Manual.pdf.) Another form of CBT that focuses on clients’ avoidance of issues related to traumatic events is PE. This therapy takes aim at over- coming the avoidance and replacing it with ways to tolerate, and even em- brace, the trauma as a life-changing event that has enhanced personal development in some way. The Role of Faith Most therapies help clients develop a new way of seeing themselves as they exist in the world. Of course, that is a large part of Christian faith—a way of understanding who we are and why we exist in relation to God. Thus, most clients who have experi- enced trauma are very open to a spiri- tual perspective on their experience. However, this perspective needs to be nuanced and thoughtful, rather than glib or cryptic. I have found clients to be more open to questions of faith after therapeutic progress has been made rather than a point of focus in the early phase of treatment. How we cope with life events has many spiritual aspects. Both religion and culture play a significant role in minimizing the effects of trauma (Murthy & Lakshminarayana, 2006). Jesus told us that we would have trouble in this world, and yet He also said that in Him we can overcome the world (John 16:33). As Christians helping others cope and find meaning in the midst of trauma, we can be assured that faith has a profound purpose in the healing process. CLARK CAMPBELL, PH.D., is a clinical psychologist and diplomate in clinical psychology (ABPP). He is currently the Senior Associate Provost at Biola University. Prior to his present assignments, he served as the Dean of the Rosemead School of Psychology for nine years and was on the psychol- ogy faculty at George Fox University for 19 years. Dr. Campbell has been in private practice, served on the faculty of a medical school, and worked in various national positions in professional psychology. He lives in Southern California with his wife of 41 years. They have three adult children and four grandchildren living in the Pacific Northwest. References Amboss (2019). Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders. Retrieved from https://www. amboss.com/us/knowledge/Trauma-_and_stressor-related_disorders. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.aast. org/trauma-facts. American Psychiatric Association (2013). The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. American Psychological Association (APA) (2017). Clinical practice guideline for the treat- ment of PTSD. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/ptsd-guideline/treatments/. Barbash, E. (2017). Different types of trauma: Small ‘t’ versus large ‘T.’ Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/trauma-and-hope/201703/different-types- trauma-small-t-versus-large-t. Burbiel, J.C. (2015). Primary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder: Drugs and impli- cations. Military Medical Research, 2 , 24, p. 1-7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2019). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ violenceprevention/childabuseandneglect/acestudy/index.html. Goforth, A.N., Pham, A.V., & Carlson, J.S. (2011), Diathesis-stress Model. In Goldstein S., & Naglieri, J.A. (eds.), Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development. Springer, Boston, MA. Murthy, R.S., & Lakshminarayana, R. (2006). Mental health consequences of war: A brief review of research findings. World Psychiatry, 5 , 1, p. 25-30. National Trauma Institute (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nattrauma.org/what-is-trauma/ trauma-statistics-facts/annual-cost-of-trauma/. Resick, P.A., Monson, C.M., & Chard, K.M. (2014). Cognitive processing therapy: Veteran/ military version: Therapist and patient materials manual. Washington, DC: Department of Veterans Affairs. Selye, H. (1978). The stress of life. Santa Monica, CA: McGraw-Hill. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs: National Center for PTSD (2019). Retrieved from https://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/treat/essentials/epidemiology.asp#two.